Education in Ancient India

Education in Ancient India➽ Education in Ancient India Free ➳ Author A.S. Altekar – This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it This work was reproduced from the original artifact and remains as This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it This work was reproduced from the original artifact and remains as true to the original work as possible Therefore you will see the original copyright references library stamps as most of these works have been housed in our Education in MOBI :¼ most important libraries around the world and other notations in the work This work is in the public domain in the United States of America and possibly other nations Within the United States you may freely copy and distribute this work as no entity individual or corporate has a copyright on the body of the workAs a reproduction of a historical artifact this work may contain missing or blurred pages poor pictures errant marks etc Scholars believe and we concur that this work is important enough to be preserved reproduced and made generally available to the public We appreciate your support of the preservation process and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant. Read this book long time back I thoroughly enjoyed it AS Altekar was one great historian Everyone should read his books So far i have read his 2 books This book by Anant Sadashiv Altekar the famed historian archaeologist and numismatist from Maharashtra is often considered as a sourcebook on the historical outline of ancient Indian education system The endeavour of ancient Indian education structure was to awaken spirituality in man and imbibe him with superior ideas To them education was an indispensable ingredient of human life since only by virtue of education could a man can achieve the utmost knowledge of this world the timeless truth The knowledge which makes us to know the truth is known as 'Paragyana' while that which helps us to know about this material world is 'Aparagyana' The knowledge of truth helps to rouse spiritualism in man while the 'Aparagyana' or material knowledge makes us specialised in several fields only but fails to enthuse us with higher spirit That was why the sages of ancient India laid greater magnitude in the accomplishment of perfect knowledge That was what they wanted to teach their disciples their pupils During the Vedic period the sole aspire of education was to widen the central faculties of man They believed that the blooming of these inner faculties would facilitate the learner to know his ‘self’ This self realisation could only lead him to know the eternal truth the essence of perfect knowledge The author shows that during the Vedic period education was open to all and there was no unwanted constraints imposed on it Everybody could get the necessary eual training Each and every class of the community could attain their education as they wished During the early days of Indian civilisation there was no caste barrier The division was in fact fundamentally a creation of the later age The Caste system was a subseuent inclusion and emerged progressively Religion was the keystone of the education system The system was saturated with the religious ideals which influenced the aim the contents of study and even the daily life of the pupil As a result the liability of imparting education was concentrated into the hands of a limited few especially in a class of people who were known as the Priests or Gurus They became a uniue class of teachers who were endowed with the character and accountability of training the youth The subject of study was essentially the religious scriptures the Vedas Of course that had to learn simultaneously some useful things for their future life as well In the initial stage every member of the community enjoyed the right to read Vedas Subseuently it was confined only to the Brahmanas and other three castes were denied the opportunity The other castes however were allowed to study some special subjects befitting to their individual professions Schools were also there but they were not exactly the same what we understand in the modern days as school The students resided in their Guru's house as one of the members of the latter's family Here they learnt both religious knowledge and practical knowledge There were however restrictions as to who would be the students The Sudras were denied the right to obtain education from the Priestly caste the Brahmins They had to learn their own lesson amidst the accessible social system The Gurus were in essence men of very towering moral and spiritual standard They were vastly learned renowned and reputable personalities There was no collective examination system to appraise the student and review his progress as was common in ancient China Instead the Gurus or teachers themselves used to arbitrate the aptitude of the students and if satisfied allowed them to proceed to the next course of study When the education was complete they were allowed to enter into their practical life Thus the educational institutions of ancient India were not altogether detached from the contemporary greater society Instead they were the essential part of the greater social system Altekar lays special emphasis on the Gurukula system In fact the matchless attribute of the Gurukul system of education was the student teacher relationship The student used to appear before his Guru and presented himself with ‘Samidha’ or the sacred fuel in his hand This Samidha was a sign of his devotional service to his preceptor The teacher too kept no reservation for himself and imparted to his student whatever knowledge he possessed Since the performance of ‘Upanayana’ till the ceremony of the ‘Samabartana’ the pupil studied at the house of his preceptor This system helped to develop a personal contact between the shishya and the Guru enabling them to promote a sense of indulgent sympathy between themselves Discipline in the Gurukul system was mainly self imposed but very strict The teacher's position status and pedigree was so very elevated that even the king was used to consider him with the umost respect and esteemThe entire education system during the Brahmanic or Vedic period and the Buddhistic period was vitally indistinguishable The only divergence between them was the fact that during the Vedic period the pupils went to the Ashramas where their Gurus resided and learnt from there They thus were taught in the Gurukulas in a genial homely ambiance whereas under the Buddhist system they received their education in the monastic schools and the organised centres for the purpose In the Brahmanical system extraordinary consideration was laid upon the ‘individual’ but in the Buddhist variant education was imparted communally through the ‘Sanghas’ For the Vedics ‘household life’ was critical while the Buddhist system founded itself on the abandonment of family life Under the Buddhist system an order of brotherhood was established by breaking tender and natural ties of family relations The student under the Brahmanical system of education had to observe stringent physical and mental discipline He had no right to enjoy pleasure During his student life he had to maintain strict Brahmacharya On the contrary the Buddhists firmly believed that the body is to be decently drooped cleansed and massaged regularly fed sheltered in the rainy season rested during the noonday heat and medically treated when ailing While the principle of unitary control of the teacher was the basis of Vedic education the Buddhist system was democratic in character Under the Brahmanical system seniority and prominence of the preceptor would always remain an established fact while the pupil under the Buddhist system would accomplish the right to vote in the deliberation of the Sanghas after his admission to it The only difference between the pupil and the preceptor was merely spiritual superiority of the latter to the formerAltekat collates and conscientiously organizes each one of the applicable references on Education and its effect on Indian character that he could discover in ancient Hindu and Buddhist literature He also takes into account the writings of such authorities as Megasthenes and Al Birüni Altekar’s magnanimous inuisition covers the whole of the Hindu period till AD 1200 when the Muslim conuest of Northern India was completed by the occupation of Bengal In the days of the yore India was a leading light and a host of scholars from China to Arabia kissed her shores to attain enlightenment from the grand universities at Taxila Nalanda Ujjain Valabhi Vikramshila and Odantapuri Ancient trade routes connected the kingdoms in Asia facilitating travel The universities sported gargantuan libraries and their curriculum boasted of subjects such as the Vedas logic nyaya vaisheshik samkhya yoga yurva mimansa uttar mimansa medicine literature astrology and astronomy and so onAltekar divides his book into ten chapters In the preliminary five chapters he enunciates the dynamics of the ancient Indian educational life and curricula in vogue while the residual five deal correspondingly with the celebrated educational centres and institutions Indian society state and education; etcI had initaially read this book while in college Thorougly enjoyed reading it the second time Five stars to Professor Altekar Extremely well researched Shade light on the education system in India over centuries Must read for anyone interested in ancient India इस विषय पर पुस्तक लिखने के लिए अल्टेकर का धन्यवाद।यह कुछ ऐसा विषय है जिसकी मुझे तलाश थी।

Education in Ancient India ePUB ô Education in  MOBI
  • Hardcover
  • 332 pages
  • Education in Ancient India
  • A.S. Altekar
  • 07 February 2016
  • 9781297516511